Companies are required to report their financials to investors every three months. In finance, these are called quarters. You will commonly hear phrases like “third-quarter earnings/Q3 or fourth quarter earnings/Q4” when researching companies.
The Income Statement, Balance Sheet, and Cash Flow Statement are the three key financial statements investors should pay attention to when analyzing a company.
You will typically see comparisons to a prior year quarter (or other time period) alongside the current quarter on a financial statement.